A – FRESH WATER
Water is a chemical compound of molecular shape (H2O) consisting of a colourless and tasteless liquid.
It contains numerous dissolved substances.
Life on our planet is due to water, in fact it is one of the main constituents of ecosystems.
In nature it is never pure, in fact it contains many dissolved substances (thanks to its solvent capacity), and particles in suspension, most of them microscopic.
The water present in nature contains a high number of microorganisms, both heterotrophic and autotrophic, represented by algae, protozoa, fungi and bacteria that constitute autochthonous water microflora.
Sea water gives life to the seas and oceans where countless dissolved salts are present.
Sea water is the most important and complete mineral water existing in nature, a natural habitat in which the first living organisms originated. All marine organisms live in salt water that varies from place to place. The current knowledge regarding the chemical composition of sea water dates back to a period of between 1870 and 1877, from the English Challenger expedition. This expedition confirms the constant proportion of salts in the sea water, consequently allowing calculation of all the components. It can be concluded by claiming that seawater in nature has a constant composition and therefore a very stable environment, a factor of vital importance for seawater aquariums.
The most evident peculiarity of sea water is its salinity which in the oceans includes approximately 35 grams of salts per litre. The specific weight of sea water depends directly on salinity.
The use of synthetic salt rich in 68 “ Ottavi tropical-reef “ trace elements is recommended.
Osmotic water is the result of the passage of common tap water through a microporous spiral whose function is to retain all the salts dissolved in the water through its pores. Bacteria and viruses are removed, allowing only the smallest water molecules to pass.
Osmotic water can be produced thanks to the use of an easy-to-find system in specialist shops. We recommend “Ottavi Osmosi 200”, a system based on the principle of reverse osmosis.
Humic acids are formed from natural substances that are created as a result of the decomposition of animal or vegetable organic matter.
The use of humic acids in the aquarium slows the growth of needles. It favours the development of epithelial mucus by fish and performs a bacteriostatic and antifungal action inside the aquarium.
It helps keep the pH stable in freshwater aquariums. Humic acids slightly obscure the water recreating a natural tropical habitat.
CARBON DIOXIDE CO2
Carbon dioxide is an acid oxide (anhydride) consisting of a carbon atom bound to two oxygen atoms. It is a fundamental substance in the vital processes of plants and animals.
Plants in nature need carbon dioxide (CO2) for their growth, essential for the production of organic compounds used in the photosynthesis process. When an aquarium is home to a large number of plants, especially fast-growing ones, the carbon dioxide supplied by the fish is no longer sufficient. In this case it is important to use the “Ottavi CO2” kit to fertilise the plants that will produce oxygen for the fish.
B – BACTERIA
The reign of bacteria consists of unicellular micro-organisms of micrometric dimensions and are widespread in all the environments present on the surface of our planet.
Bacteria constitute the terminal ring of all food chains: all the organic substances produced by animals and plants are finally decomposed into new inorganic substances by bacteria.
The groups of nitrifying bacteria “Nitrosomonas” and “Nitrobacter” present in “ Ottavi bio-vit “ , promote the development of a remarkable and rich bacterial flora in the aquarium filter.
The use of “good” bacteria prevents the accumulation of nitrites and ammonia in the aquarium.
C – WATER CONDUCTIVITY
The conductivity value of the water tells us the amount of mineral salts dissolved in the water. The conductivity is measured in microsiemens (µS). The electrical conductivity of the water is a value that is also indicated on the labels of the mineral waters on the market. The conductivity is variable depending on the temperature.
Aquarium fish require a limited quantity of salts dissolved in water.
To quantify the precise value of the salts present it is measured with a small electronic device equipped with a fast electrode to be immersed in the water according to the resistance that the water interposes between the current passing from one pole to the other of the electrode. The test indicates the conductivity, that is the ability to allow the passage of electric current.
Osmotic water has a conductivity of 0. The values of water in a freshwater aquarium are linked to the metabolism of plants and fish: ferrous ion, magnesium, nitrite, phosphate, nitrate and calcium, all substances that contribute to the conductivity of water. The average conductivity value in a freshwater aquarium is approximately 450 µS / cm.
A high conductivity value seriously damages the health of fish and this is why the use of “Octavi osmosis 200” osmotic water is recommended.
Colloids are mixtures consisting of solid or liquid particles, with a diameter of between 5 and 200 nm, dispersed in a fluid (liquid or gas).
Many common materials are actually colloids, just think of: mayonnaise, butter, cream, milk, etc. Colloids are also very common in the organic world. In fact, colloids are to be considered: cell cytoplasm, gelatin, egg whites, puddings.
Based on their consistency, colloidal solutions can take on significantly different aspects. In the world of aquariums they appear gelatinous. The systematic use of “Ottavi aqua-vit“, a water conditioner enriched with aloe vera, synthetic polymers and colloids, protects the mucous membrane and the digestive system of fish.
Chlorine is a chemical used for water purification.
It is a natural element that in nature is only found combined with other elements, especially sodium in the form of common salt (NaCl). Chlorine is a disinfectant substance present in tap water. In setting up a new aquarium or in partial water changes it is necessary to neutralise it quickly because it can cause serious irritation to the protective mucosa of fish.
“Ottavi cloro -cid “ is a bioconditioner designed for the elimination of chlorine in aquariums and turtle tanks.
Activated charcoal is a material mainly consisting of amorphous charcoal and having a highly porous structure. Charcoal is a fuel extracted from underground mines or is artificially produced.
Charcoal is the result of the transformation of plant residues, chemically altered and transformed by heat and pressure over the millennia.
Charcoal has a high degree of absorbency. Used in the aquarium, it eliminates organic substances, medicinal and feed residues. A good quality product does not alter the ph value of the water and is free from phosphates.
It can be used for both freshwater and saltwater aquariums. If it is necessary to intervene in the aquarium with curative products or additives of any kind, it is advisable to remove it to avoid the absorption of the dissolved products.
Hyperactive charcoal is generally presented in granules. Compared to another activated charcoal it has a more powerful and faster action with a higher absorption capacity and a longer duration than active charcoal.
It is especially recommended for the obtaining of breeding water, for keeping particularly sensitive fish and for heavily populated aquariums. “Ottavi hyper-pur“ is a filter based on activated charcoal in granules suitable for both freshwater and seawater aquariums.
D – WATER HARDNESS:
GH TOTAL HARDNESS
GH is the value that determines the concentration of magnesium and calcium salts dissolved in water, more commonly called “total hardness”. Most tropical freshwater fish live in environments with a degree of GH ranging from 2° to 10° (ideal value).
KH TEMPORARY HARDNESS
The KH is the value that determines the quantity of carbonates dissolved in water, more commonly called “temporary hardness”. Determining this value is of fundamental importance, considering that carbonate salts are unstable and can suddenly change the pH of the water. Most tropical freshwater fish live in environments with a degree of KH ranging from 2° to 5° KH (ideal value). Increasing the hardness, therefore, also the degree of ph increases becoming so harmful for the fish.
F – SYNTHETIC FIBRE
It is part of a particular family of synthetic polyamides. The synthetic fibre of Perlon is perfectly suited to mechanical filtration in the aquarium. It has the peculiarity of being inert, absolutely non-toxic and neutral and therefore does not alter the pH of the water. It maintains its softness even during filtering and can be used for a long time. “Ottavi fiber-pur“ is suitable for both freshwater and seawater aquariums.
With the chemical symbol PO4, phosphates consist of a central phosphorus atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms that give life to a tetrahedron.
In unpolluted waters phosphates are absent. Their presence is due to pollution from fertilisers and organic degradation in general.
Phosphates are important for the growth of aquarium plants but are monitored to prevent algae growth. The accumulation of phosphates can be counteracted with the use of a skimmer and specific resins.
N – NITRITES
Nitrites are anions consisting of a nitrogen atom and two oxygen atoms. Their chemical formula is NO2. Nitrites originate from the biological decomposition of ammonia. In the aquarium, as in nature, the bacteria process excrements and other organic wastes transforming them into inorganic substances. The biological cycle that derives from this begins with the ammonia produced by the organic substances that will turn into nitrites to then complete the nitrate cycle. A high content of nitrites is an indication of an incomplete transformation cycle by the bacterial flora and an excessive presence of waste. A high concentration of nitrite is toxic to aquatic fauna resulting in a decrease in the oxygen content in the blood of fish. The optimal value for the presence of nitrites should not exceed a concentration of 0.5 mg/lt.
Nitrate ion is an important polyatomic anion. Nitrates are the result of the biological decomposition of nitrites through the bacteria present in the filter and in the bottom of the aquarium (nitrobacter). The nitrifying bacterial strains “Nitrosomonas ” and “Nitrobacter” act biologically on the water and condition the content of nitrites and ammonia in a positive way for aquarium fish. Excessive algae growth often occurs; the uncontrolled growth of these is due to the poor quality of the water (excessive accumulation of nitrates).
O – OZONE
Ozone is an allotropic form of oxygen, it cannot be stored and must be produced at the time of use. Due to its oxidising power, ozone is used to disinfect. It is produced by passing air in contact with a high voltage electrode. In this way a part of the oxygen (O2) is transformed into ozone (O3). The devices in which the process is carried out are called “ozonisers” and the quantity produced depends on the dust and humidity present in the air.
If it is intended to use ozone in the aquarium, it is necessary to put the water into contact with it; this must take place outside the aquarium as, in addition to a certain dosage ozone, it becomes harmful or even toxic to fish.
A gaseous element, oxygen is chemically represented by the symbol O. It is odourless and colourless and the most widespread in nature. In fact oxygen is essential to organic life and is the main constituent of air and water.
The presence of oxygen in a confined environment such as the aquarium is of fundamental importance in aquatic ecosystems. The quantity of oxygen in these balances is the result of the balance between production and the breathing of living beings.
Inside the aquarium plants perform a fundamental function (photosynthesis) as they absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen and this is why an abundant presence of plants is recommended that, in addition to decorating the aquarium, create an ideal environment for the fish life.
In chemistry, a trace element is a necessary element, although in minimal quantity, for the development and appropriate growth of all organisms.
It acts on the metabolism of living beings. The simplest way to enrich the aquarium water with trace elements is to carry out partial water changes periodically.
If you have a seawater aquarium a regular monthly intake of trace elements is recommended if a regularly functioning skimmer is applied. “Ottavi tropical-reef“ is a new-concept synthetic sea salt enriched with 68 trace elements that closely resembles the characteristics of sea water.
P – PH
The pH is a scale for measuring the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. It refers to the hydrogen ion concentration of a given solution. The scale of the ph value is between 0 and 14. The lower the ph value, the higher the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution, that is its acidity. Regarding the freshwater aquarium, the optimal pH value varies between 6.5 and 7.5 according to the fish housed, while in the seawater aquarium the optimal value varies between 8.2 and 8.4.
T – TEMPERATURE
Physical quantity, measured by thermometers, which measures the ability of a body to produce sensations of heat or cold, i.e. its ability to exchange heat with another body or with the environment. Low temperatures promote the development of certain diseases in the specimens, while high temperatures weaken fish even if they are able to stop the development of certain parasitic infestations or of the same fungal diseases.
In the aquarium the optimal temperature ranges between 24° and 26°C. Fish, being heterothermal animals, depend on the temperature of the environment in which they live. Overly high temperatures accelerate the metabolic system.
Peat is the fossil fuel formed by a deposit of sunken vegetable that remains impregnated with water which, due to the acidity of the environment, cannot decompose entirely. Its formation is due to the slow and continuous accumulation of plant residues in splits of the land where water and moisture are collected and certain climatic and environmental conditions are achieved.
The use of peat in the aquarium is intended for freshwater aquariums. Rich in trace elements and humic acids, it has the property of lowering water hardness and making it slightly acid, favouring ph stability.
S – SALTS
A name commonly used to refer to sodium chloride used daily in domestic situations. Seawater has a very complete composition and the balance between the various components can influence the reproduction of the marine habitat. Salinity is due to the evaporation that removes distilled water from the oceans and releases salts, contributed by the rivers and rocks with which the water comes into contact. “Ottavi tropical-reef“ is a new generation product consisting of pure and first quality substances. “Octavi tropical-reef“ helps to obtain in a few hours a suitable environment for fish and marine invertebrates, even the most delicate ones, such as crinoids. The perfect blend of 68 trace elements, salts and chelating substances make “Octavi tropical-reef“ essential for setting up new tanks, in periodic partial changes of water, in the period of reproduction and in fish breeding.
U – UV
Ultraviolet light is reproduced from a wide range of artificial and natural sources including from the most powerful, the Sun. In the aquarium, a UV sterilisation system is used to obtain the lowest possible number of bacteria. This system uses lamps that emit ultraviolet rays which have a very short wavelength. UV rays are highly sterilising because they are also used to purify water. Orienting the water of an aquarium close to a cavity in contact with UV rays will destroy almost all the bacteria contained in it.
UV radiations do not penetrate deeply into the water and this is why accessories are used outside the aquarium with a minimum air space that interfaces with UV rays.
Z – ZEOLITE
It is a natural material of volcanic origin, with a very regular macro-molecular structure and a very high porosity that absorbs molecule and ions of different sizes sufficient to neutralise silicates, nitrates, ammonia and nitrites. “Ottavi triki-filter“ is a product designed specifically for the elimination of numerous toxic substances including ammonia, responsible for the yellowing of water.